Hi there and welcome! With carpet and the details you have on it, it sounds like it’s been installed for about 8-10 years. A good carpets life is estimated at around that time frame. You could try and get it professionally cleaned to stretch the life a bit more, but it just depends on how bad it is. That laminate that has bubbled and peeled will do just that when in contact with water. I would recommend replacing it with a vinyl plank flooring. Much better stuff and waterproof.
In reguards to charging the previous tenants. You MAY be able to get them for neglecting to remove water and or